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VGAT cytoplasmic domain - 131 002

GABA transporter in the membrane of synaptic vesicles
Polyclonal rabbit antiserum
Cat. No.: 131 002
Amount: 200 µl
Price: 350.00 €
Cat. No. 131 002 200 µl antiserum, lyophilized. For reconstitution add 200 µl H2O, then aliquot and store at -20°C until use.
Applications WB: 1 : 1000 up to 1 : 5000 (AP staining) (see remarks) gallery  
IP: yes
ICC: 1 : 100 up to 1 : 1000 gallery  
IHC: 1 : 500 up to 1 : 3000 gallery  
IHC-P/FFPE: yes
Immunogen Synthetic peptide corresponding to AA 75 to 87 from rat VGAT (UniProt Id: O35458)
Reactivity Reacts with: human (Q9H598), rat (O35458), mouse (O35633), monkey.
Other species not tested yet.
Specificity Specific for VGAT. K.O.
Matching control protein/peptide 131-0P
Remarks

WB:  VGAT aggregates after boiling, making it necessary to run SDS-PAGE with non-boiled samples.

Data sheet 131_002.pdf

References for VGAT - 131 002

Optogenetic Activation of Striatopallidal Neurons Reveals Altered HCN Gating in DYT1 Dystonia.
Sciamanna G, Ponterio G, Vanni V, Laricchiuta D, Martella G, Bonsi P, Meringolo M, Tassone A, Mercuri NB, Pisani A
Cell reports (2020) 317: 107644. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Glutamate, GABA and presynaptic markers involved in neurotransmission are differently affected by age in distinct mouse brain regions.
Rozycka A, Charzynska A, Misiewicz Z, Maciej Stępniewski T, Sobolewska A, Kossut M, Liguz-Lecznar M
ACS chemical neuroscience (2019) : . 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Piperlongumine decreases cognitive impairment and improves hippocampal function in aged mice.
Go J, Park TS, Han GH, Park HY, Ryu YK, Kim YH, Hwang JH, Choi DH, Noh JR, Hwang DY, Kim S, et al.
International journal of molecular medicine (2018) 424: 1875-1884. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.
Bavley CC, Rice RC, Fischer DK, Fakira AK, Byrne M, Kosovsky M, Rizzo BK, Del Prete D, Alaedini A, Morón JA, Higgins JJ, et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2018) 3811: 2780-2795. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Regulation of the Hippocampal Network by VGLUT3-Positive CCK- GABAergic Basket Cells.
Fasano C, Rocchetti J, Pietrajtis K, Zander JF, Manseau F, Sakae DY, Marcus-Sells M, Ramet L, Morel LJ, Carrel D, Dumas S, et al.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2017) 11: 140. 131 002 WB, IP; tested species: mouse
Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.
Cao M, Wu Y, Ashrafi G, McCartney AJ, Wheeler H, Bushong EA, Boassa D, Ellisman MH, Ryan TA, De Camilli P
Neuron (2017) 934: 882-896.e5. 131 002 WB, ICC; tested species: mouse
A novel non-canonical Notch signaling regulates expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in excitatory neurons.
Hayashi Y, Nishimune H, Hozumi K, Saga Y, Harada A, Yuzaki M, Iwatsubo T, Kopan R, Tomita T
Scientific reports (2016) 6: 23969. 131 002 WB
Cerebellar synaptogenesis is compromised in mouse models of DYT1 dystonia.
Vanni V, Puglisi F, Bonsi P, Ponterio G, Maltese M, Pisani A, Mandolesi G
Experimental neurology (2015) 271: 457-67. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Distribution of SNAP25, VAMP1 and VAMP2 in mature and developing deep cerebellar nuclei after estrogen administration.
Manca P, Mameli O, Caria MA, Torrejón-Escribano B, Blasi J
Neuroscience (2014) 266: 102-15. 131 002 WB, IHC
Simultaneous monitoring of presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic receptor trafficking reveals an enhancement of presynaptic activity in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression.
Xu W, Tse YC, Dobie FA, Baudry M, Craig AM, Wong TP, Wang YT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2013) 3313: 5867-5877. 131 002 WB
Neuronal and glial differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) visual system ontogeny.
Romero-Alemán MM, Monzón-Mayor M, Santos E, Lang DM, Yanes C
The Journal of comparative neurology (2012) 52010: 2163-84. 131 002 WB, IHC
An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size.
Wojcik SM, Rhee JS, Herzog E, Sigler A, Jahn R, Takamori S, Brose N, Rosenmund C
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2004) 10118: 7158-63. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Regulation of the Hippocampal Network by VGLUT3-Positive CCK- GABAergic Basket Cells.
Fasano C, Rocchetti J, Pietrajtis K, Zander JF, Manseau F, Sakae DY, Marcus-Sells M, Ramet L, Morel LJ, Carrel D, Dumas S, et al.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2017) 11: 140. 131 002 WB, IP; tested species: mouse
VGLUT1 and VGAT are sorted to the same population of synaptic vesicles in subsets of cortical axon terminals.
Fattorini G, Verderio C, Melone M, Giovedì S, Benfenati F, Matteoli M, Conti F
Journal of neurochemistry (2009) 1105: 1538-46. 131 002 IP
Imbalance of Excitatory/Inhibitory Neuron Differentiation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders with an NR2F1 Point Mutation.
Zhang K, Yu F, Zhu J, Han S, Chen J, Wu X, Chen Y, Shen T, Liao J, Guo W, Yang X, et al.
Cell reports (2020) 313: 107521. 131 002 ICC; tested species: human
M-current inhibition in hippocampal excitatory neurons triggers intrinsic and synaptic homeostatic responses at different temporal scales.
Lezmy J, Gelman H, Katsenelson M, Styr B, Tikochinsky E, Lipinsky M, Peretz A, Slutsky I, Attali B
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Presynaptic α2δ-2 Calcium Channel Subunits Regulate Postsynaptic GABAA Receptor Abundance and Axonal Wiring.
Geisler S, Schöpf CL, Stanika R, Kalb M, Campiglio M, Repetto D, Traxler L, Missler M, Obermair GJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2019) 3914: 2581-2605. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Disruptive variants of CSDE1 associate with autism and interfere with neuronal development and synaptic transmission.
Guo H, Li Y, Shen L, Wang T, Jia X, Liu L, Xu T, Ou M, Hoekzema K, Wu H, Gillentine MA, et al.
Science advances (2019) 59: eaax2166. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
High-Aspect-Ratio Semiconducting Polymer Pillars for 3D Cell Cultures.
Tullii G, Giona F, Lodola F, Bonfadini S, Bossio C, Varo S, Desii A, Criante L, Sala C, Pasini M, Verpelli C, et al.
ACS applied materials & interfaces (2019) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Vti1a/b regulate synaptic vesicle and dense core vesicle secretion via protein sorting at the Golgi.
Emperador-Melero J, Huson V, van Weering J, Bollmann C, Fischer von Mollard G, Toonen RF, Verhage M
Nature communications (2018) 91: 3421. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Depolarizing, inhibitory GABA type A receptor activity regulates GABAergic synapse plasticity via ERK and BDNF signaling.
Brady ML, Pilli J, Lorenz-Guertin JM, Das S, Moon CE, Graff N, Jacob TC
Neuropharmacology (2018) 128: 324-339. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Pool size estimations for dense-core vesicles in mammalian CNS neurons.
Persoon CM, Moro A, Nassal JP, Farina M, Broeke JH, Arora S, Dominguez N, van Weering JR, Toonen RF, Verhage M
The EMBO journal (2018) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Transient oxytocin signaling primes the development and function of excitatory hippocampal neurons.
Ripamonti S, Ambrozkiewicz MC, Guzzi F, Gravati M, Biella G, Bormuth I, Hammer M, Tuffy LP, Sigler A, Kawabe H, Nishimori K, et al.
eLife (2017) 6: . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.
Li J, Han W, Pelkey KA, Duan J, Mao X, Wang YX, Craig MT, Dong L, Petralia RS, McBain CJ, Lu W, et al.
Neuron (2017) 964: 808-826.e8. 131 002 ICC, IHC; tested species: mouse
Nanoscale Molecular Reorganization of the Inhibitory Postsynaptic Density Is a Determinant of GABAergic Synaptic Potentiation.
Pennacchietti F, Vascon S, Nieus T, Rosillo C, Das S, Tyagarajan SK, Diaspro A, Del Bue A, Petrini EM, Barberis A, Cella Zanacchi F, et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2017) 377: 1747-1756. 131 002 ICC
Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.
Cao M, Wu Y, Ashrafi G, McCartney AJ, Wheeler H, Bushong EA, Boassa D, Ellisman MH, Ryan TA, De Camilli P
Neuron (2017) 934: 882-896.e5. 131 002 WB, ICC; tested species: mouse
Vesicular Synaptobrevin/VAMP2 Levels Guarded by AP180 Control Efficient Neurotransmission.
Koo SJ, Kochlamazashvili G, Rost B, Puchkov D, Gimber N, Lehmann M, Tadeus G, Schmoranzer J, Rosenmund C, Haucke V, Maritzen T, et al.
Neuron (2015) 882: 330-44. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Synaptic localization of α5 GABA (A) receptors via gephyrin interaction regulates dendritic outgrowth and spine maturation.
Brady ML, Jacob TC
Developmental neurobiology (2015) 7511: 1241-51. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.
Kaczor P, Rakus D, Mozrzymas JW
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2015) 9: 120. 131 002 ICC
Genetic evidence for the adhesion protein IgSF9/Dasm1 to regulate inhibitory synapse development independent of its intracellular domain.
Mishra A, Traut MH, Becker L, Klopstock T, Stein V, Klein R
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2014) 3412: 4187-99. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Neuronal synapse formation induced by microglia and interleukin 10.
Lim SH, Park E, You B, Jung Y, Park AR, Park SG, Lee JR
PloS one (2013) 811: e81218. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Multiple roles for mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission.
Weston MC, Chen H, Swann JW
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2012) 3233: 11441-52. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses.
Baldelli P, Fassio A, Valtorta F, Benfenati F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2007) 2749: 13520-31. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Notch and NGF/p75NTR control dendrite morphology and the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input to hippocampal neurones through Neurogenin 3.
Salama-Cohen P, Arévalo MA, Grantyn R, Rodríguez-Tébar A
Journal of neurochemistry (2006) 975: 1269-78. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Neuroligins mediate excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation: involvement of PSD-95 and neurexin-1beta in neuroligin-induced synaptic specificity.
Levinson JN, Chéry N, Huang K, Wong TP, Gerrow K, Kang R, Prange O, Wang YT, El-Husseini A
The Journal of biological chemistry (2005) 28017: 17312-9. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Stimulation of TM3 Leydig cell proliferation via GABA(A) receptors: a new role for testicular GABA.
Geigerseder C, Doepner RF, Thalhammer A, Krieger A, Mayerhofer A
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E (2004) 2: 13. 131 002 ICC, IHC-P; tested species: mouse,rat
Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons.
Nakahata Y, Eto K, Murakoshi H, Watanabe M, Kuriu T, Hirata H, Moorhouse AJ, Ishibashi H, Nabekura J
eNeuro () 41: . 131 002 ICC
Neonatal Injury Evokes Persistent Deficits in Dynorphin Inhibitory Circuits within the Adult Mouse Superficial Dorsal Horn.
Brewer CL, Li J, O'Conor K, Serafin EK, Baccei ML
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) 4020: 3882-3895. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Perineuronal nets regulate the inhibitory perisomatic input onto parvalbumin interneurons and gamma activity in the prefrontal cortex.
Carceller H, Guirado R, Ripolles-Campos E, Teruel-Marti V, Nacher J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Enhancing WNT Signaling Restores Cortical Neuronal Spine Maturation and Synaptogenesis in Tbr1 Mutants.
Fazel Darbandi S, Robinson Schwartz SE, Pai EL, Everitt A, Turner ML, Cheyette BNR, Willsey AJ, State MW, Sohal VS, Rubenstein JLR
Cell reports (2020) 312: 107495. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Sex and age differentially affect GABAergic neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following chronic intermittent hypoxia.
Rubin BR, Milner TA, Pickel VM, Coleman CG, Marques-Lopes J, Van Kempen TA, Kazim SF, McEwen BS, Gray JD, Pereira AC
Experimental neurology (2020) 325: 113075. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Dark exposure affects plasticity-related molecules and interneurons throughout the visual system during adulthood.
Carceller H, Guirado R, Nacher J
The Journal of comparative neurology (2019) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Paradoxical effects of continuous high dose gabapentin treatment on autonomic dysreflexia after complete spinal cord injury.
Eldahan KC, Williams HC, Cox DH, Gollihue JL, Patel SP, Rabchevsky AG
Experimental neurology (2019) 323: 113083. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Teashirt 1 (Tshz1) is essential for the development, survival and function of hypoglossal and phrenic motor neurons in mouse.
Chaimowicz C, Ruffault PL, Chéret C, Woehler A, Zampieri N, Fortin G, Garratt AN, Birchmeier C
Development (Cambridge, England) (2019) 14617: . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Localization of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Biomphalaria alexandrina.
Beach GA, Habib MR, El Hiani Y, Miller MW, Croll RP
Journal of neuroscience research (2019) : . 131 002 IHC
Amot and Yap1 regulate neuronal dendritic tree complexity and locomotor coordination in mice.
Rojek KO, Krzemień J, Doleżyczek H, Boguszewski PM, Kaczmarek L, Konopka W, Rylski M, Jaworski J, Holmgren L, Prószyński TJ
PLoS biology (2019) 175: e3000253. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
The development of synaptic transmission is time-locked to early social behaviors in rats.
Naskar S, Narducci R, Balzani E, Cwetsch AW, Tucci V, Cancedda L
Nature communications (2019) 101: 1195. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Mutant ataxin1 disrupts cerebellar development in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.
Edamakanti CR, Do J, Didonna A, Martina M, Opal P
The Journal of clinical investigation (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
IgSF9b regulates anxiety behaviors through effects on centromedial amygdala inhibitory synapses.
Babaev O, Cruces-Solis H, Piletti Chatain C, Hammer M, Wenger S, Ali H, Karalis N, de Hoz L, Schlüter OM, Yanagawa Y, Ehrenreich H, et al.
Nature communications (2018) 91: 5400. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Aspects of excitatory/inhibitory synapses in multiple brain regions are correlated with levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin-3.
Shinoda Y, Sadakata T, Yagishita K, Kinameri E, Katoh-Semba R, Sano Y, Furuichi T
Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Neurochemical fingerprinting of amygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid projections: a tracing-immunofluorescence study in the rat.
Wouterlood FG, van Oort S, Bloemhard L, Flierman NA, Spijkerman J, Wright CI, Beliën JAM, Groenewegen HJ
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Age-related loss of VGLUT1 excitatory, but not VGAT inhibitory, immunoreactive terminals on motor neurons in spinal cords of old sarcopenic male mice.
Krishnan VS, Shavlakadze T, Grounds MD, Hodgetts SI, Harvey AR
Biogerontology (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Ablation of the presynaptic organizer Bassoon in excitatory neurons retards dentate gyrus maturation and enhances learning performance.
Annamneedi A, Caliskan G, Müller S, Montag D, Budinger E, Angenstein F, Fejtova A, Tischmeyer W, Gundelfinger ED, Stork O
Brain structure & function (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Neurotransmitter diversity in pre-synaptic terminals located in the parvicellular neuroendocrine paraventricular nucleus of the rat and mouse hypothalamus.
Johnson CS, Bains JS, Watts AG
The Journal of comparative neurology (2018) 5268: 1287-1306. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse,rat
Development of inhibitory synaptic inputs on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
Virtanen MA, Lacoh CM, Fiumelli H, Kosel M, Tyagarajan S, de Roo M, Vutskits L
Brain structure & function (2018) 2234: 1999-2012. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Differential Control of Dopaminergic Excitability and Locomotion by Cholinergic Inputs in Mouse Substantia Nigra.
Estakhr J, Abazari D, Frisby K, McIntosh JM, Nashmi R
Current biology : CB (2017) 2713: 1900-1914.e4. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.
Li J, Han W, Pelkey KA, Duan J, Mao X, Wang YX, Craig MT, Dong L, Petralia RS, McBain CJ, Lu W, et al.
Neuron (2017) 964: 808-826.e8. 131 002 ICC, IHC; tested species: mouse
Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.
Ebbers L, Weber M, Nothwang HG
BMC neuroscience (2017) 181: 75. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Layer- and cell type-selective co-transmission by a basal forebrain cholinergic projection to the olfactory bulb.
Case DT, Burton SD, Gedeon JY, Williams SG, Urban NN, Seal RP
Nature communications (2017) 81: 652. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Verification of the Cross Immunoreactivity of A60, a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Neuronal Nuclear Protein.
Mao S, Xiong G, Zhang L, Dong H, Liu B, Cohen NA, Cohen AS
Frontiers in neuroanatomy (2016) 10: 54. 131 002 IHC
Aberrant synaptic integration in adult lamina I projection neurons following neonatal tissue damage.
Li J, Kritzer E, Craig PE, Baccei ML
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2015) 356: 2438-51. 131 002 IHC
Activity-dependent mismatch between axo-axonic synapses and the axon initial segment controls neuronal output.
Wefelmeyer W, Cattaert D, Burrone J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015) 11231: 9757-62. 131 002 IHC
Distribution of SNAP25, VAMP1 and VAMP2 in mature and developing deep cerebellar nuclei after estrogen administration.
Manca P, Mameli O, Caria MA, Torrejón-Escribano B, Blasi J
Neuroscience (2014) 266: 102-15. 131 002 WB, IHC
Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.
Szucs P, Luz LL, Pinho R, Aguiar P, Antal Z, Tiong SY, Todd AJ, Safronov BV
The Journal of comparative neurology (2013) 52112: 2719-41. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Neuronal and glial differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) visual system ontogeny.
Romero-Alemán MM, Monzón-Mayor M, Santos E, Lang DM, Yanes C
The Journal of comparative neurology (2012) 52010: 2163-84. 131 002 WB, IHC
Quantitative study of NPY-expressing GABAergic neurons and axons in rat spinal dorsal horn.
Polgár E, Sardella TC, Watanabe M, Todd AJ
The Journal of comparative neurology (2011) 5196: 1007-23. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Polysialic acid is required for dopamine D2 receptor-mediated plasticity involving inhibitory circuits of the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
Castillo-Gómez E, Varea E, Blasco-Ibáñez JM, Crespo C, Nacher J
PloS one (2011) 612: e29516. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Neuronal MHC class I molecules are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission at the hippocampal mossy fiber synapses of marmoset monkeys.
Ribic A, Zhang M, Schlumbohm C, Mätz-Rensing K, Uchanska-Ziegler B, Flügge G, Zhang W, Walter L, Fuchs E
Cellular and molecular neurobiology (2010) 306: 827-39. 131 002 IHC
Chronic low-level lead exposure affects the monoaminergic system in the mouse superior olivary complex.
Fortune T, Lurie DI
The Journal of comparative neurology (2009) 5135: 542-58. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Endocannabinoids regulate interneuron migration and morphogenesis by transactivating the TrkB receptor.
Berghuis P, Dobszay MB, Wang X, Spano S, Ledda F, Sousa KM, Schulte G, Ernfors P, Mackie K, Paratcha G, Hurd YL, et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2005) 10252: 19115-20. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
High-Precision Fast-Spiking Basket Cell Discharges during Complex Events in the Human Neocortex.
Szegedi V, Molnár G, Paizs M, Csakvari E, Barzó P, Tamás G, Lamsa K
eNeuro () 45: . 131 002 IHC; tested species: human
Stimulation of TM3 Leydig cell proliferation via GABA(A) receptors: a new role for testicular GABA.
Geigerseder C, Doepner RF, Thalhammer A, Krieger A, Mayerhofer A
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E (2004) 2: 13. 131 002 ICC, IHC-P; tested species: mouse,rat
Evidence for a GABAergic system in rodent and human testis: local GABA production and GABA receptors.
Geigerseder C, Doepner R, Thalhammer A, Frungieri MB, Gamel-Didelon K, Calandra RS, Köhn FM, Mayerhofer A
Neuroendocrinology (2003) 775: 314-23. 131 002 IHC-P; tested species: rat
Cat. No.: 131 002
Quantity: 200 µl
Price: 350.00 €
Optogenetic Activation of Striatopallidal Neurons Reveals Altered HCN Gating in DYT1 Dystonia.
Sciamanna G, Ponterio G, Vanni V, Laricchiuta D, Martella G, Bonsi P, Meringolo M, Tassone A, Mercuri NB, Pisani A
Cell reports (2020) 317: 107644. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Glutamate, GABA and presynaptic markers involved in neurotransmission are differently affected by age in distinct mouse brain regions.
Rozycka A, Charzynska A, Misiewicz Z, Maciej Stępniewski T, Sobolewska A, Kossut M, Liguz-Lecznar M
ACS chemical neuroscience (2019) : . 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Piperlongumine decreases cognitive impairment and improves hippocampal function in aged mice.
Go J, Park TS, Han GH, Park HY, Ryu YK, Kim YH, Hwang JH, Choi DH, Noh JR, Hwang DY, Kim S, et al.
International journal of molecular medicine (2018) 424: 1875-1884. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.
Bavley CC, Rice RC, Fischer DK, Fakira AK, Byrne M, Kosovsky M, Rizzo BK, Del Prete D, Alaedini A, Morón JA, Higgins JJ, et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2018) 3811: 2780-2795. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Regulation of the Hippocampal Network by VGLUT3-Positive CCK- GABAergic Basket Cells.
Fasano C, Rocchetti J, Pietrajtis K, Zander JF, Manseau F, Sakae DY, Marcus-Sells M, Ramet L, Morel LJ, Carrel D, Dumas S, et al.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2017) 11: 140. 131 002 WB, IP; tested species: mouse
Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.
Cao M, Wu Y, Ashrafi G, McCartney AJ, Wheeler H, Bushong EA, Boassa D, Ellisman MH, Ryan TA, De Camilli P
Neuron (2017) 934: 882-896.e5. 131 002 WB, ICC; tested species: mouse
A novel non-canonical Notch signaling regulates expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in excitatory neurons.
Hayashi Y, Nishimune H, Hozumi K, Saga Y, Harada A, Yuzaki M, Iwatsubo T, Kopan R, Tomita T
Scientific reports (2016) 6: 23969. 131 002 WB
Cerebellar synaptogenesis is compromised in mouse models of DYT1 dystonia.
Vanni V, Puglisi F, Bonsi P, Ponterio G, Maltese M, Pisani A, Mandolesi G
Experimental neurology (2015) 271: 457-67. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Distribution of SNAP25, VAMP1 and VAMP2 in mature and developing deep cerebellar nuclei after estrogen administration.
Manca P, Mameli O, Caria MA, Torrejón-Escribano B, Blasi J
Neuroscience (2014) 266: 102-15. 131 002 WB, IHC
Simultaneous monitoring of presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic receptor trafficking reveals an enhancement of presynaptic activity in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression.
Xu W, Tse YC, Dobie FA, Baudry M, Craig AM, Wong TP, Wang YT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2013) 3313: 5867-5877. 131 002 WB
Neuronal and glial differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) visual system ontogeny.
Romero-Alemán MM, Monzón-Mayor M, Santos E, Lang DM, Yanes C
The Journal of comparative neurology (2012) 52010: 2163-84. 131 002 WB, IHC
An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size.
Wojcik SM, Rhee JS, Herzog E, Sigler A, Jahn R, Takamori S, Brose N, Rosenmund C
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2004) 10118: 7158-63. 131 002 WB; tested species: mouse
Regulation of the Hippocampal Network by VGLUT3-Positive CCK- GABAergic Basket Cells.
Fasano C, Rocchetti J, Pietrajtis K, Zander JF, Manseau F, Sakae DY, Marcus-Sells M, Ramet L, Morel LJ, Carrel D, Dumas S, et al.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2017) 11: 140. 131 002 WB, IP; tested species: mouse
VGLUT1 and VGAT are sorted to the same population of synaptic vesicles in subsets of cortical axon terminals.
Fattorini G, Verderio C, Melone M, Giovedì S, Benfenati F, Matteoli M, Conti F
Journal of neurochemistry (2009) 1105: 1538-46. 131 002 IP
Imbalance of Excitatory/Inhibitory Neuron Differentiation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders with an NR2F1 Point Mutation.
Zhang K, Yu F, Zhu J, Han S, Chen J, Wu X, Chen Y, Shen T, Liao J, Guo W, Yang X, et al.
Cell reports (2020) 313: 107521. 131 002 ICC; tested species: human
M-current inhibition in hippocampal excitatory neurons triggers intrinsic and synaptic homeostatic responses at different temporal scales.
Lezmy J, Gelman H, Katsenelson M, Styr B, Tikochinsky E, Lipinsky M, Peretz A, Slutsky I, Attali B
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Presynaptic α2δ-2 Calcium Channel Subunits Regulate Postsynaptic GABAA Receptor Abundance and Axonal Wiring.
Geisler S, Schöpf CL, Stanika R, Kalb M, Campiglio M, Repetto D, Traxler L, Missler M, Obermair GJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2019) 3914: 2581-2605. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Disruptive variants of CSDE1 associate with autism and interfere with neuronal development and synaptic transmission.
Guo H, Li Y, Shen L, Wang T, Jia X, Liu L, Xu T, Ou M, Hoekzema K, Wu H, Gillentine MA, et al.
Science advances (2019) 59: eaax2166. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
High-Aspect-Ratio Semiconducting Polymer Pillars for 3D Cell Cultures.
Tullii G, Giona F, Lodola F, Bonfadini S, Bossio C, Varo S, Desii A, Criante L, Sala C, Pasini M, Verpelli C, et al.
ACS applied materials & interfaces (2019) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Vti1a/b regulate synaptic vesicle and dense core vesicle secretion via protein sorting at the Golgi.
Emperador-Melero J, Huson V, van Weering J, Bollmann C, Fischer von Mollard G, Toonen RF, Verhage M
Nature communications (2018) 91: 3421. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Depolarizing, inhibitory GABA type A receptor activity regulates GABAergic synapse plasticity via ERK and BDNF signaling.
Brady ML, Pilli J, Lorenz-Guertin JM, Das S, Moon CE, Graff N, Jacob TC
Neuropharmacology (2018) 128: 324-339. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Pool size estimations for dense-core vesicles in mammalian CNS neurons.
Persoon CM, Moro A, Nassal JP, Farina M, Broeke JH, Arora S, Dominguez N, van Weering JR, Toonen RF, Verhage M
The EMBO journal (2018) : . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Transient oxytocin signaling primes the development and function of excitatory hippocampal neurons.
Ripamonti S, Ambrozkiewicz MC, Guzzi F, Gravati M, Biella G, Bormuth I, Hammer M, Tuffy LP, Sigler A, Kawabe H, Nishimori K, et al.
eLife (2017) 6: . 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.
Li J, Han W, Pelkey KA, Duan J, Mao X, Wang YX, Craig MT, Dong L, Petralia RS, McBain CJ, Lu W, et al.
Neuron (2017) 964: 808-826.e8. 131 002 ICC, IHC; tested species: mouse
Nanoscale Molecular Reorganization of the Inhibitory Postsynaptic Density Is a Determinant of GABAergic Synaptic Potentiation.
Pennacchietti F, Vascon S, Nieus T, Rosillo C, Das S, Tyagarajan SK, Diaspro A, Del Bue A, Petrini EM, Barberis A, Cella Zanacchi F, et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2017) 377: 1747-1756. 131 002 ICC
Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.
Cao M, Wu Y, Ashrafi G, McCartney AJ, Wheeler H, Bushong EA, Boassa D, Ellisman MH, Ryan TA, De Camilli P
Neuron (2017) 934: 882-896.e5. 131 002 WB, ICC; tested species: mouse
Vesicular Synaptobrevin/VAMP2 Levels Guarded by AP180 Control Efficient Neurotransmission.
Koo SJ, Kochlamazashvili G, Rost B, Puchkov D, Gimber N, Lehmann M, Tadeus G, Schmoranzer J, Rosenmund C, Haucke V, Maritzen T, et al.
Neuron (2015) 882: 330-44. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Synaptic localization of α5 GABA (A) receptors via gephyrin interaction regulates dendritic outgrowth and spine maturation.
Brady ML, Jacob TC
Developmental neurobiology (2015) 7511: 1241-51. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.
Kaczor P, Rakus D, Mozrzymas JW
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience (2015) 9: 120. 131 002 ICC
Genetic evidence for the adhesion protein IgSF9/Dasm1 to regulate inhibitory synapse development independent of its intracellular domain.
Mishra A, Traut MH, Becker L, Klopstock T, Stein V, Klein R
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2014) 3412: 4187-99. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Neuronal synapse formation induced by microglia and interleukin 10.
Lim SH, Park E, You B, Jung Y, Park AR, Park SG, Lee JR
PloS one (2013) 811: e81218. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Multiple roles for mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission.
Weston MC, Chen H, Swann JW
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2012) 3233: 11441-52. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses.
Baldelli P, Fassio A, Valtorta F, Benfenati F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2007) 2749: 13520-31. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Notch and NGF/p75NTR control dendrite morphology and the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input to hippocampal neurones through Neurogenin 3.
Salama-Cohen P, Arévalo MA, Grantyn R, Rodríguez-Tébar A
Journal of neurochemistry (2006) 975: 1269-78. 131 002 ICC; tested species: mouse
Neuroligins mediate excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation: involvement of PSD-95 and neurexin-1beta in neuroligin-induced synaptic specificity.
Levinson JN, Chéry N, Huang K, Wong TP, Gerrow K, Kang R, Prange O, Wang YT, El-Husseini A
The Journal of biological chemistry (2005) 28017: 17312-9. 131 002 ICC; tested species: rat
Stimulation of TM3 Leydig cell proliferation via GABA(A) receptors: a new role for testicular GABA.
Geigerseder C, Doepner RF, Thalhammer A, Krieger A, Mayerhofer A
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E (2004) 2: 13. 131 002 ICC, IHC-P; tested species: mouse,rat
Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons.
Nakahata Y, Eto K, Murakoshi H, Watanabe M, Kuriu T, Hirata H, Moorhouse AJ, Ishibashi H, Nabekura J
eNeuro () 41: . 131 002 ICC
Neonatal Injury Evokes Persistent Deficits in Dynorphin Inhibitory Circuits within the Adult Mouse Superficial Dorsal Horn.
Brewer CL, Li J, O'Conor K, Serafin EK, Baccei ML
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) 4020: 3882-3895. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Perineuronal nets regulate the inhibitory perisomatic input onto parvalbumin interneurons and gamma activity in the prefrontal cortex.
Carceller H, Guirado R, Ripolles-Campos E, Teruel-Marti V, Nacher J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2020) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Enhancing WNT Signaling Restores Cortical Neuronal Spine Maturation and Synaptogenesis in Tbr1 Mutants.
Fazel Darbandi S, Robinson Schwartz SE, Pai EL, Everitt A, Turner ML, Cheyette BNR, Willsey AJ, State MW, Sohal VS, Rubenstein JLR
Cell reports (2020) 312: 107495. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Sex and age differentially affect GABAergic neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following chronic intermittent hypoxia.
Rubin BR, Milner TA, Pickel VM, Coleman CG, Marques-Lopes J, Van Kempen TA, Kazim SF, McEwen BS, Gray JD, Pereira AC
Experimental neurology (2020) 325: 113075. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Dark exposure affects plasticity-related molecules and interneurons throughout the visual system during adulthood.
Carceller H, Guirado R, Nacher J
The Journal of comparative neurology (2019) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Paradoxical effects of continuous high dose gabapentin treatment on autonomic dysreflexia after complete spinal cord injury.
Eldahan KC, Williams HC, Cox DH, Gollihue JL, Patel SP, Rabchevsky AG
Experimental neurology (2019) 323: 113083. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Teashirt 1 (Tshz1) is essential for the development, survival and function of hypoglossal and phrenic motor neurons in mouse.
Chaimowicz C, Ruffault PL, Chéret C, Woehler A, Zampieri N, Fortin G, Garratt AN, Birchmeier C
Development (Cambridge, England) (2019) 14617: . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Localization of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Biomphalaria alexandrina.
Beach GA, Habib MR, El Hiani Y, Miller MW, Croll RP
Journal of neuroscience research (2019) : . 131 002 IHC
Amot and Yap1 regulate neuronal dendritic tree complexity and locomotor coordination in mice.
Rojek KO, Krzemień J, Doleżyczek H, Boguszewski PM, Kaczmarek L, Konopka W, Rylski M, Jaworski J, Holmgren L, Prószyński TJ
PLoS biology (2019) 175: e3000253. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
The development of synaptic transmission is time-locked to early social behaviors in rats.
Naskar S, Narducci R, Balzani E, Cwetsch AW, Tucci V, Cancedda L
Nature communications (2019) 101: 1195. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Mutant ataxin1 disrupts cerebellar development in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.
Edamakanti CR, Do J, Didonna A, Martina M, Opal P
The Journal of clinical investigation (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
IgSF9b regulates anxiety behaviors through effects on centromedial amygdala inhibitory synapses.
Babaev O, Cruces-Solis H, Piletti Chatain C, Hammer M, Wenger S, Ali H, Karalis N, de Hoz L, Schlüter OM, Yanagawa Y, Ehrenreich H, et al.
Nature communications (2018) 91: 5400. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Aspects of excitatory/inhibitory synapses in multiple brain regions are correlated with levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin-3.
Shinoda Y, Sadakata T, Yagishita K, Kinameri E, Katoh-Semba R, Sano Y, Furuichi T
Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Neurochemical fingerprinting of amygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid projections: a tracing-immunofluorescence study in the rat.
Wouterlood FG, van Oort S, Bloemhard L, Flierman NA, Spijkerman J, Wright CI, Beliën JAM, Groenewegen HJ
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Age-related loss of VGLUT1 excitatory, but not VGAT inhibitory, immunoreactive terminals on motor neurons in spinal cords of old sarcopenic male mice.
Krishnan VS, Shavlakadze T, Grounds MD, Hodgetts SI, Harvey AR
Biogerontology (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Ablation of the presynaptic organizer Bassoon in excitatory neurons retards dentate gyrus maturation and enhances learning performance.
Annamneedi A, Caliskan G, Müller S, Montag D, Budinger E, Angenstein F, Fejtova A, Tischmeyer W, Gundelfinger ED, Stork O
Brain structure & function (2018) : . 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Neurotransmitter diversity in pre-synaptic terminals located in the parvicellular neuroendocrine paraventricular nucleus of the rat and mouse hypothalamus.
Johnson CS, Bains JS, Watts AG
The Journal of comparative neurology (2018) 5268: 1287-1306. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse,rat
Development of inhibitory synaptic inputs on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
Virtanen MA, Lacoh CM, Fiumelli H, Kosel M, Tyagarajan S, de Roo M, Vutskits L
Brain structure & function (2018) 2234: 1999-2012. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Differential Control of Dopaminergic Excitability and Locomotion by Cholinergic Inputs in Mouse Substantia Nigra.
Estakhr J, Abazari D, Frisby K, McIntosh JM, Nashmi R
Current biology : CB (2017) 2713: 1900-1914.e4. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.
Li J, Han W, Pelkey KA, Duan J, Mao X, Wang YX, Craig MT, Dong L, Petralia RS, McBain CJ, Lu W, et al.
Neuron (2017) 964: 808-826.e8. 131 002 ICC, IHC; tested species: mouse
Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.
Ebbers L, Weber M, Nothwang HG
BMC neuroscience (2017) 181: 75. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Layer- and cell type-selective co-transmission by a basal forebrain cholinergic projection to the olfactory bulb.
Case DT, Burton SD, Gedeon JY, Williams SG, Urban NN, Seal RP
Nature communications (2017) 81: 652. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Verification of the Cross Immunoreactivity of A60, a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Neuronal Nuclear Protein.
Mao S, Xiong G, Zhang L, Dong H, Liu B, Cohen NA, Cohen AS
Frontiers in neuroanatomy (2016) 10: 54. 131 002 IHC
Aberrant synaptic integration in adult lamina I projection neurons following neonatal tissue damage.
Li J, Kritzer E, Craig PE, Baccei ML
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2015) 356: 2438-51. 131 002 IHC
Activity-dependent mismatch between axo-axonic synapses and the axon initial segment controls neuronal output.
Wefelmeyer W, Cattaert D, Burrone J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015) 11231: 9757-62. 131 002 IHC
Distribution of SNAP25, VAMP1 and VAMP2 in mature and developing deep cerebellar nuclei after estrogen administration.
Manca P, Mameli O, Caria MA, Torrejón-Escribano B, Blasi J
Neuroscience (2014) 266: 102-15. 131 002 WB, IHC
Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.
Szucs P, Luz LL, Pinho R, Aguiar P, Antal Z, Tiong SY, Todd AJ, Safronov BV
The Journal of comparative neurology (2013) 52112: 2719-41. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Neuronal and glial differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) visual system ontogeny.
Romero-Alemán MM, Monzón-Mayor M, Santos E, Lang DM, Yanes C
The Journal of comparative neurology (2012) 52010: 2163-84. 131 002 WB, IHC
Quantitative study of NPY-expressing GABAergic neurons and axons in rat spinal dorsal horn.
Polgár E, Sardella TC, Watanabe M, Todd AJ
The Journal of comparative neurology (2011) 5196: 1007-23. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Polysialic acid is required for dopamine D2 receptor-mediated plasticity involving inhibitory circuits of the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
Castillo-Gómez E, Varea E, Blasco-Ibáñez JM, Crespo C, Nacher J
PloS one (2011) 612: e29516. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
Neuronal MHC class I molecules are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission at the hippocampal mossy fiber synapses of marmoset monkeys.
Ribic A, Zhang M, Schlumbohm C, Mätz-Rensing K, Uchanska-Ziegler B, Flügge G, Zhang W, Walter L, Fuchs E
Cellular and molecular neurobiology (2010) 306: 827-39. 131 002 IHC
Chronic low-level lead exposure affects the monoaminergic system in the mouse superior olivary complex.
Fortune T, Lurie DI
The Journal of comparative neurology (2009) 5135: 542-58. 131 002 IHC; tested species: mouse
Endocannabinoids regulate interneuron migration and morphogenesis by transactivating the TrkB receptor.
Berghuis P, Dobszay MB, Wang X, Spano S, Ledda F, Sousa KM, Schulte G, Ernfors P, Mackie K, Paratcha G, Hurd YL, et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2005) 10252: 19115-20. 131 002 IHC; tested species: rat
High-Precision Fast-Spiking Basket Cell Discharges during Complex Events in the Human Neocortex.
Szegedi V, Molnár G, Paizs M, Csakvari E, Barzó P, Tamás G, Lamsa K
eNeuro () 45: . 131 002 IHC; tested species: human
Stimulation of TM3 Leydig cell proliferation via GABA(A) receptors: a new role for testicular GABA.
Geigerseder C, Doepner RF, Thalhammer A, Krieger A, Mayerhofer A
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E (2004) 2: 13. 131 002 ICC, IHC-P; tested species: mouse,rat
Evidence for a GABAergic system in rodent and human testis: local GABA production and GABA receptors.
Geigerseder C, Doepner R, Thalhammer A, Frungieri MB, Gamel-Didelon K, Calandra RS, Köhn FM, Mayerhofer A
Neuroendocrinology (2003) 775: 314-23. 131 002 IHC-P; tested species: rat
Background
The vesicular GABA transporter VGAT is responsible for uptake and storage of GABA and glycine by synaptic vesicles in the central nervous system. For this reason it is frequently referred to as the vesicular inhibitory aminoacid transporter VIAAT. It is different from the plasma membrane transporters in that it is driven by a proton electrochemical gradient across the vesicle membrane. So far, only one isoform is known. VGAT is currently the best marker for inhibitory nerve terminals.